5G AND 6G EVOLUTION

https://doi.org/10.52326/jes.utm.2022.29(2).07

UDC [004.7:621.39]:001.89

Titu-Marius I. Băjenescu

Abstract. The constant evolution in telecommunications is recognized both as a market driver and as a driver for R&D, since R&D activities are built to support consumer and business demands. The market pressures and recent past recessions have considerably shifted the focus of companies to product development and incremental research. This current focus on short term gains has paved the way for applied research to the furthest extent. Research and technological development, which is a founding block of any field of science and technology, was explained from the point of view of ICT with a primary focus on the telecom industry. The research ecosystem along with its shortcomings were also presented. It is important that governments and the ICT industry re-evaluate the R&D ecosystem and consider having both a 3 to 5-year view along with a 30 to 40-year long vision. 5G technology started to roll out effectively to ordinary users in 2019 (development of this technology started in April 2008), and in 2020 it was expected to spread to even more countries, and then in a few years it will be global. This is despite various studies that point out that 5G radiation will have negative effects on human health (which has also been claimed for 4G and 3G), while organisations such as the US Communications Commission (US FCC) and almost all similar organisations state that 5G radiation has no significant effects on human health. Another concern is the security of communications over 5G networks, especially equipment sold by China. Australia and the UK – in early 2019, took steps to restrict or eliminate the use of Chinese-sourced equipment in their 5G networks. Also in 2019 the US via the FBI and the UK via Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) other intelligence services, began to get more involved in changing surveillance standards. Including at the NATO meeting in London in December 2019, 5G network security and development was discussed. In addition to high download speeds, the 5G network also has a low “air latency” (between phone and antenna) of 8-12 milliseconds.

Keywords: 5G mobile communication, robust research ecosystem, 6G, wireless network, NTT DOCOMO, R & D process, significantly faster speeds, Nokia 2G 6G, making 6G a reality.

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