DRIVING TIREDNESS – THE END ENEMY OF THE DRIVER

https://doi.org/10.52326/jes.utm.2022.29(3).01

UDC 159.944.4:656.086

Vasile Plămădeală

Abstract. In modern society, little or no sleep at all has become a habit, almost a good tradition. Fulfilled sleep is one of the key factors of a healthy lifestyle and longevity, along with proper nutrition, physical activity and that one is fighting stress. Driver fatigue reduces the level of traffic safety, having a negative impact on all psychophysical qualities. Fatigue at the wheel, like driving under the influence of alcohol, is a major factor in road accidents and should not be neglected, regardless of the experience of the driver, the car driven or, the road he travels. A moment of inattention at the wheel can turn the driver, passengers or other innocent people into a simple statistics of road accidents. The article describes the signs and causes of fatigue, measures to prevent and restore the driver’s work capacity, as well as warning systems introduced by several manufacturers on keeping the car on the lane, monitoring the driver’s fatigue etc.

Keywords: driving fatigue, fatigue, road accidents, traffic accidents, drowsiness, car safety systems.

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OBJECTIVE APPROACH IN INVESTIGATING IMPLICATION OF ROAD VEHICLE TYRE SAFETY KNOWLEDGE ON COMPLIANCE

https://doi.org/10.52326/jes.utm.2022.29(3).02

UDC 629.067(669)

Adinife Patrick Azodo, Olasunkanmi Salami Ismaila, Titus Y. Jibatswen, Owoeye Femi Timothy

Abstract. Standard effectual directive on tyre safety management operations on its own is nothing without appropriate compliance and application. Deliberate oversight and neglect of safety precautionary measures may result in an accident and eventually be classified as an unforeseen event. This study on safety knowledge and its implication for on-road vehicle tyre safety compliance was conducted among one hundred and thirteen private vehicle owners in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Data collection for this study was done using subjective and physical measurement procedures. The analysis of data obtained showed that sixty-eight participants (60.2%) of the participants had a fair knowledge of road vehicle tyre safety, followed by those that had good knowledge 39 (34.5%). No participant had poor or excellent knowledge. Overall operational tyre safety and compliance with the specifics for tyre standard condition showed that 1 (0.9%) of the assessed vehicles were of very high safe and appropriate compliance status. Forty-three (38.1%) of the assessed vehicles owned and used by the participants were of very low operational tyre safety and practices. This was followed by average safe and appropriate practice 39 (34.5%). Pearson’s chi-square test analysis was used to check if there is an association between tyre safety knowledge and safe and appropriate compliance status variables gave χ2 = 1.135 and p = 0.769. This implies that there is no statistically significant association between the two variables.

Keywords: tyre, safety, knowledge, vehicle, compliance, on-road.

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NEW VAPOR DEPOSITED DIELECTRIC POLYMER THIN FILMS FOR ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS

https://doi.org/10.52326/jes.utm.2022.29(3).03

UDC 539.234:621.38

Stefan Schröder, Nicolae Magariu, Thomas Strunskus, Nicolai Ababii, Oleg Lupan, Franz Faupel

Abstract. Dielectric materials are of great interest in a vast amount of applications ranging from cable insulation to advanced electronic devices. The emerging trend of device miniaturization is creating an increased demand for dielectric thin films that can be produced precisely on the nanometer scale. In addition, special mechanical properties are often required, for example in the field of flexible organic electronics. Polymers are first-choice materials for this purpose. However, it is extremely difficult to produce precise nanoscale thin films, which have a low defect density and are free of e.g. residual solvent, by wet chemistry approaches. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a solvent-free polymer thin film deposition process which can be used to produce high quality dielectric thin films with nanoscale control and circumvents thus these problems. This work demonstrates the versatility of the iCVD process in the field of electrical applications by some new application examples of iCVD. By adding e.g. a hydrophobic organosiloxane thin film on columnar zinc oxide (ZnO:Fe) gas sensing structures there was a change in the selectivity from ethanol to hydrogen, as well as improved performance at high humidity level. The modified sensors can thus be used in humid ambient, especially for breathing tests, which can lead to the diagnosis of some diseases by cutting edge non-invasive approaches.

Keywords: Polymers, Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition, Electronic Materials, Dielectrics, Electrets, Gas Sensors.

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GAS SENSITIVE FILMS BASED ON Te-SnO2 NANOCOMPOSITE ON FLEXIBLE SUBSTRATE

https://doi.org/10.52326/jes.utm.2022.29(3).04

UDC 539.23:681.586

Dumitru Tsiulyanu, Olga Mocreac, Andrei Afanasiev, Eduard Monaico

Abstract. Flexible films based on novel Te-SnO2 nanocomposites were fabricated for detection of toxic gases at room temperature. The Te-SnO2 nanocomposites were obtained via solvohermal recrystallization of pure crystalline tellurium in nitric acid in the presence of tin chloride. The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and XRD analyses have shown that the Te-SnO2 films consists of fluffy structures of tiny agglomerates of the nanodimensional irregular blocks of hexagonal Te and polycrystalline SnO2. Both current / voltage and transient characteristics of the flexible Te-SnO2 films were investigated at room temperature in ambiance comprising different toxic gases. The maximum selectivity was revealed toward NO2, for which in the dynamic range of 0.5 – 5.0 ppm of NO2, the response and recovery times are about 30 s and 150 s respectively. Analysis of the response kinetics meets the Langmuir theory of adsorption. This study revealed a simple route of fabrication of the printable Te-SnO2 nanocomposites that can be used in electronics, inclusive for development of flexible and compostable gas sensors, operating at room temperature.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Te-SnO2, Conductometric sensors, NO2.

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APPLICATION OF PRIVACY-PRESERVING DATA PUBLISHING IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS OF KEBBI STATE USING GENERALIZATION AND SUPPRESSION

https://doi.org/10.52326/jes.utm.2022.29(3).05

UDC 004.056(669)

Anas Shehu, Alhassan Salihu, Abubakar Sani

Abstract. The research was conducted in the field of publishing data to preserve confidentiality. Several educational datasets have been used to address privacy and utility. The sample questionnaires served to investigate the level of privacy awareness and enforcement in the records of students in tertiary institutions in Kebbi State, Nigeria. The benchmark datasets were obtained from Kebbi State Polytechnic Dakin-gari. K-anonymity and l-diversity models were used with k configurations and suppression limits of 10 and 50% in the ARX 3.9.0 de-anonymization environment. The work evaluates data privacy, quality, and execution time for each k value and suppressions limit. Experimental results demonstrate that the higher the suppression the more balanced exists between privacy and utility. It was observed that suppression of 50% provides less anonymization time irrespective of k compared to k values in suppression = 10%. This was proved to be due to less time it takes anonymization to be completed Also, from respondents, 92% of students’ records were kept permanently in plain and, issued to third parties like that—with no privacy guarantee. This poses privacy threats to datasets.

Keywords: Arx de-anonymization tool, Dakin-gari, k-anonymity, privacy, quality, utility.

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INTEREST BASED ADAPTIVE BILLBOARD CONTENT MANAGEMENT

https://doi.org/10.52326/jes.utm.2022.29(3).06

UDC: 659.133:004.353.254.5

Victor Moraru, Viorel Cărbune

Abstract. The street advertising has undergone some significant changes in recent years: traditional billboards are gradually being replaced by electronic display devices (LED screens) that are able to change in real-time the broadcast advertising, thus allows the dynamic content management. This paper aims to develop an adaptive advertising strategy based on the preferences of the people in front of the screen. Each of them has a special application installed on their personal smartphone through which they can configure their interests regarding the broadcast advertising. These interest profiles are then collected by billboards which, based on them, select the most appropriate type of ad to run at that time. The proposed method focus on transformation of a simple display equipment into an intelligent one, capable of adapting the broadcast content to the requirements of the nearby audience and aims to maximize the efficiency of the billboard operation and at the same time bring maximum satisfaction to the target audience. The performance of the method was evaluated using agent based computer simulation.

Keywords: adaptive content management, digital advertising screens, street advertising.

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SMART CITY SERVICES BASED ON SPATIAL-TEMPORAL LOGIC

https://doi.org/10.52326/jes.utm.2022.29(3).07

UDC 004.89:338.49:711

Ana Turcan, Victor Ababii, Viorica Sudacevschi, Radu Melnic, Victoria Alexei, Silvia Munteanu, Constantin Ababii

Abstract. The development and research of Smart City Service Systems is a very important area for the future of mankind. The urbanization process imposes new criteria for qualitative and quantitative assessment of population well-being, which will involve processing a very large volume of information, organizing the data exchange and processing. This paper proposes a Multi-Agent Smart City Services system based on Spatial-Temporal logic. In order to optimize the criteria for the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of services, the set of agents is divided into: the subset of agents that deliver services and the subset of service consumers agents. The system diagram, the synthesis of the agents, the operators of temporal and spatial logic was elaborated. The relationship between the subset of service delivery agents and the subset of agents of service consumers is determined by game theory models.

Keywords: Spatial – Temporal Logics, Distributed Computing, Multi-Agent Systems, Swarm Intelligence, Collective Decision Making, Game Theory, Knowledge Bases.

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A NOVEL CLASSIFICATION WITH DEEP CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORKS ON PULMONARY NODULE

https://doi.org/10.52326/jes.utm.2022.29(3).08

UDC 004.032.26:616.24-006

Arun B. Mathews, Krishna K. Prasad

Abstract. Medical images are an important part of a patient’s health record, and they need data manipulation, processing, and handling by computers. As a result, medical data is a type of bigdata, and its analysis has become complex. Because manual disease diagnosis takes longer and produces less accurate results, it may result in incorrect treatment. Three DCNN architectures have been exploited and evaluated for tumor detection and classification. The sample image for the experimentation is chosen from Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) with Image Database Resource Initiative (IDRI) and Kaggle dataset which consists of normal and abnormal image. The experimental results of proposed DCNN classifier achieved best accuracy than the GoogleNet, AlexNet, Artificial neural network and support vector machine.

Keywords: Lung cancer, DCNN, LIDC and GoogleNet, AlexNet.

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NANOTECHNOLOGY: REFLECTIONS ON HEALTH BENEFITS AND RISKS

https://doi.org/10.52326/jes.utm.2022.29(3).09

UDC 620.3:61

Artur Buzdugan

Abstract. There is a constant increase in the demand for engineers who can transform nanotechnology from a scientific result into a commercial solution. However, new technologies often caused conflicts between those who want to exploit them as soon as possible and those who are waiting to receive absolute proof of safety. Certain types of nanoparticles are well studied and recommended for use in medicine, biology, chemistry, cosmetology, etc. Some nanoparticles are proven to be extremely toxic, with drastically different properties from the same volume compounds. The risks associated with using nanotechnologies and products containing nanoparticles cannot be minimized in the absence of regulations, which would allow adequate control to protect the environment and the population’s health. Companies are also extremely careful in investing in this field as long as there is no transparent regulation, as the ultimate goal is to protect the surrounding environment and society. In this paper, we present an overview of the benefits of nanotechnology in areas that affect human health, as well as the risks that may arise from the early use or ill-will of nanotechnologies.

Keywords: nanotechnology, applications, biomedical engineering, impact, risk, regulation.

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PHOTOVOLTAICS SOLUTIONS AND ENERGY COMMUNITIES IN A CLEAN ENERGY ROADMAP

https://doi.org/10.52326/jes.utm.2022.29(3).10

UDC 621.383.51(478)

Cristina Efremov

Abstract. The present paper deals with solutions regarding the development of the Energy Strategy toward 2050 for a clean and sustainable future. At the national level conceptual elements are needed to draw a roadmap for the energy transition in the Republic of Moldova. The paper presents the renewable energy potential of the country with focus on photovoltaic energy production. A specific PV deployment solution is also analysed, namely the floating PV, while use cases for using this solution for serving energy communities in the rural area has been also proposed. The solutions can be considered steps that will foreshadow the national energy long-term strategy in the energy sector. An efficient transition to decarbonised energy systems requires the search for innovative solutions to increase the penetration of renewable energy sources, for changing the future energy system by promoting and evaluating innovative perspectives.

Keywords: energy transition, roadmap, energy strategy, renewable energy sources, floating PVs, energy community.

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RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE MODIFIED BITUMEN

https://doi.org/10.52326/jes.utm.2022.29(3).11

UDC 625.85:628.4

Chukwuka Ezemenike, Olugbenga Oyedepo, Olufikayo Aderinlewo, Isiaka Oladele, Omoniyi Olukanni

Abstract. The aim of this research is to evaluate the rheological properties of industrial waste modified bitumen. The varying proportion of polypropylene ranging from 0% to 20% of the weight of bitumen at 5% interval with 60/70 penetration grade was used. The asphalt binder modification was prepared by using high-speed mixer at temperature from 150 °C to 190 °C. The conventional test like softening point, penetration, ductility, flash and fire point test were carried out to assess the physical characteristics of polypropylene modified and unmodified bitumen, thereafter dynamic shear rheometer and rotational viscosity test were conducted to determine the rheological properties of bitumen. The result indicated that polypropylene has ability to improve the conventional properties of bitumen by increased penetration and ductility, decrease softening point and flash and fire point. Polypropylene modified bitumen provides better resistance against permanent deformation due to their increase in complex modulus and rotational viscosity and decrease in phase angle. It can be concluded that polypropylene modified bitumen could improve the level of performance and service life of the road.

Keywords: industrial waste, modified bitumen, performance, polypropylene, rheology.

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PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ASMARA BREWERY EFFLUENTS

https://doi.org/10.52326/jes.utm.2022.29(3).12

UDC 628.3.034.2:663.4(67)

Aremanda Ramesh Babu, Tekle Arsiema, Daniel Heaven, Berhane Filmon, Mehari Abiel

Abstract. Brewing industry is water intensive and consequently generates huge volumes of wastes. Bottle washing and brewing operations recognized as the major effluent sources of Asmara Brewery Corporation Share Company (ABCSC), Eritrea. Effluents of bottle cleaning and brewing sections and their mix of 2:1 characterized on weekly basis for the resemblance of national and international effluent standards. DO levels of wastes detected as low as 2.14 mg/L, which does not support any life and eventually poses severe environmental issues. TSS, COD and BOD5 levels have exceeded EU and EPA effluents standards. COD and BOD5 concentrations estimated were higher than other reported breweries and beyond the benchmarks of Brewer’s Association, USA. Brewery wastewater has a mean COD of 83240 mg/L and BOD5 of 11066 mg/L and highly contaminated than bottle cleaning and mixed effluents. Therefore, in order to reuse voluminous wastewater and to curb excessive COD levels, effluents from ABCSC require special attention prior to their discharge into the public sewer line.

Keywords: Industrial wastewater, characterization, breweries, environmental pollution, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand.

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RECENT ADVANCES IN SMART KITCHEN AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGIES: PRINCIPLES, APPROACHES, AND CHALLENGES

https://doi.org/10.52326/jes.utm.2022.29(3).13

UDC 643.3:[004.7:621.391]

Buhari U. Umar, Olayemi M. Olaniyi, Idris A. Dauda, Danlami Maliki, Cindy P. Okoro

Abstract. The Internet of Things (IoT) is a growing network of physical devices that are connected to various types of sensors and can share data with the aid of internet connectivity. Safety is an important consideration when designing a house, town, smart kitchen, etc., and it continues to play an important role in today’s world. In general, the kitchen is regarded as one of the most crucial tasks in our everyday lives, making it imperative to equip this vital element of human life with smart devices to avoid commonplace incidents such as gas leaks, intense particles in the environment, or fire outbursts. Gas leaks in the kitchen can be dangerous and deadly, resulting in fires if they go unchecked. For smart kitchens, various systems have been built to combat gas leaks and fire outbreaks. However, despite their high precision, these systems each have their own set of flaws that have severely restricted their implementations. The state-of-the-art in gas leakage, fire, and smoke detection in a smart kitchen is discussed in this paper. Different methods of gas leakage and fire detection are also addressed, along with their strengths and weaknesses, as well as products available in the market today.

Keywords: Internet of things (IoT), smart kitchen, gas leakage, smoke, safety systems.

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EVALUATION OF GLUTEN CONTAMINATION IN GLUTEN-FREE PRODUCTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

https://doi.org/10.52326/jes.utm.2022.29(3).14

UDC 664:613.2:614.31(478)

Rodica Siminiuc, Dinu Țurcanu

Abstract. Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune condition, triggered by gluten ingestion, which affects the small intestine, destroying the villi. It is considered that in recent years CD has undergone a real “metamorphosis” due to the constant increase in diagnosed cases. The only treatment available for BC is to stick to a gluten-free diet throughout your life. Adherence to a GFD requires strict elimination of gluten-containing products, as patients with CD are very sensitive to the toxic effect of gluten. The purpose of the research is to evaluate whether the products marketed on the territory of the Republic of Moldova, labeled as gluten-free products, are safe for people with celiac disease, from the perspective of their gluten content. The identification of gluten in GF products sold in supermarkets in the capital was done using the GlutenToxPro gluten detection kit for food, beverages, and work surfaces (AOAC-RI). Research has shown that both gluten-free products imported with the Crossed Grain logo and those just labeled gluten-free (both imported and local), pose no risk to people with gluten-related disorders: the gluten content of all samples was up to 20 ppm. Local, non-packaged GF products (developed and made available to consumers by the supermarkets concerned) pose an increased risk of contamination.

Keywords: celiac disease, certified products, Crossed Grain logo, food safety, food labeling, gluten free.

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EFFECT OF BIOACTIVE ADDITIVES ON BIOMASS FERMENTATION FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL SECTOR

https://doi.org/10.52326/jes.utm.2022.29(3).15

UDC 663.26:579

Gheorghe Duca, Olga Covaliova, Ecaterina Covaci, Lidia Romanciuc, Corina Tașca

Abstract. Wastes from the agro-industrial sector, due to their toxic effects with regard to plants and living organisms, cannot be dumped in the soil. However, they can serve as renewable source of value-added products, following the specific digestive treatment. This research was focused on studies of vinasse fermentation processes in the presence of bioactive substances introduced directly into the digested biomass. The results obtained testify that the substances of natural origin used as additives, demonstrate the pronounced effects on alcoholic fermentation of vinasse under the mesophilic conditions. The comparative assessment of different additives action in the studied processes have demonstrated that the dihydroxyfumaric acid caused the emission of 266 cm3 CO2 in 76 hours, aescinum – 251 cm3 in 55 hours, tomatin – 233 cm3 during 78 hours, sclareol – 232 cm3 during 55 hours, vanillin – 229 cm3 during 69 hours, whereas catechin – 180 cm3 during 61 hours of fermentation, until the fermentation process was completed. Thus, the study of the effects of bioactive substances with possible antioxidant properties on biomass from winemaking sector with identification of these processes mechanisms can be a perspective direction, suggesting the new ways of wastes valorisation.

Keywords: Agro-industrial wastes, vinasse, fermentation, bioactive additives.

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SPECTRAL AND CHROMATOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISATION OF THE YELLOW FOOD DYE FROM SAFFLOWER

https://doi.org/10.52326/jes.utm.2022.29(3).16

UDC 667.275

Alexandra Savcenco

Abstract. Recently, an increasingly trend of public concern for the food safety is observed. Use of additives in food industry growing steadily. Present study deals with separation and identification of compounds from Yellow Food Dye from Safflower (YFDS). Spectral and chromatographic characteristics of YFDS were obtained and discussed. Dry powders and solutions of YFDS were examined using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), UV-Vis spectroscopy and reversed-phase HPLC. TLC was carried out in three systems I (HCl 0.1 M), II (aqua 50%, ethanol 45%, citric acid 5%) and III (water, butan-1-ol, acetic acid). Spectral determinations in the range of 200 to 600 nm were carried out at various pH values. HPLC method was carried out by the gradient elution technique. Chromatographic method showed that it is impossible to separate and to identify the components of the YFDS by paper chromatography. UV-Vis Spectra demonstrated that the most successful interval for the practical use of YFDS is in the pH range of pH = 4…5, since in this range the coloration activity of dyes is maximal. HPLC method demonstrated that YFDS-compounds corresponds to the composition of dry Safflower petals, which confirms its high biological activity. Powdered yellow pigment from Safflower petals is containing natural chalcones and can be successfully used in the dairy producing.

Keywords: Anhydrosafflower Yellow B, Chalcones, Hydroxisafflower Yellow A, Izosafflomin C, Precarthamine, Safflomin C.

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